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Fruits - types of Fruits, growing and planting information

Learn how to grow beautiful delicious Fruits in your garden

Gardening Tips Beginner and ExpertThe term fruit has many different meanings depending on context. In botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary together with seeds of a flowering plant. In many species, the fruit incorporates the ripened ovary and the surrounding tissues. Fruits are the means by which flowering plants disseminate seeds.

In cuisine, when discussing fruit as food, the term usually refers to those plant fruits that are sweet and fleshy, examples of which include plums, apples and oranges. However, a great many common vegetables, as well as nuts and grains, are the fruit of that plant species. No single terminology really fits the enormous variety that is found among plant fruits. The cuisine terminology for fruits is inexact and will remain so.

The term false fruit (pseudocarp, accessory fruit) is sometimes applied to a fruit like the fig (a multiple-accessory fruit; see below) or to a plant structure that resembles a fruit but is not derived from a flower or flowers. Some gymnosperms, such as yew, have fleshy arils that resemble fruits and some junipers have berry-like, fleshy cones. The term "fruit" has also been inaccurately applied to the seed-containing female cones of many conifers.

With most fruits pollination is a vital part of fruit culture, and the lack of knowledge of pollinators and pollenizers can contribute to poor crops or poor quality crops. In a few species, the fruit may develop in the absence of pollination/fertilization, a process known as parthenocarpy. Such fruits are seedless. A plant that does not produce fruit is known as acarpous, meaning "without fruit".  [top]

Botanic fruit and culinary fruit

Many foods are botanically fruit but are treated as vegetables in cooking. These include cucurbits (e.g., squash, pumpkin, and cucumber), tomato, peas, beans, corn, eggplant, and sweet pepper, spices, such as allspice and chillies. Occasionally, though rarely, a culinary "fruit" will not be a true fruit in the botanical sense. For example, rhubarb may be considered a fruit, though only the petiole is edible. In the culinary sense, a fruit is usually any sweet tasting plant product associated with seed(s), a vegetable is any savoury or less sweet plant product, and a nut any hard, oily, and shelled plant product.

Although a nut is a type of fruit, it is also a popular term for edible seeds, such as peanuts (which are actually a legume) and pistachios. Technically, a cereal grain is a fruit termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is very thin and fused to the seed coat so almost all of the edible grain is actually a seed. Therefore, cereal grains, such as corn, wheat and rice are better considered edible seeds, although some references list them as fruits. Edible gymnosperms seeds are often misleadingly given fruit names, e.g. pine nuts, ginkgo nuts, and juniper berries.  [top]

Fruit Development

A fruit is a ripened ovary. After the ovule in an ovary is fertilized in a process known as pollination, the ovary begins to ripen. The ovule develops into a seed and the ovary wall pericarp may become fleshy (as in berries or drupes), or form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). In some cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off. Fruit development continues until the seeds have matured. With some multiseeded fruits the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules.

The wall of the fruit, developed from the ovary wall of the flower, is called the pericarp. The pericarp is often differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp (outer layer - also called epicarp), mesocarp (middle layer), and endocarp (inner layer). In some fruits, especially simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower (such as the floral tube, including the petals, sepals, and stamens), fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. The plant hormone ethylene causes ripening. When such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms.

Fruits are so diverse that it is difficult to devise a classification scheme that includes all known fruits. Many common terms for seeds and fruit are incorrectly applied, a fact that complicates understanding of the terminology. Seeds are ripened ovules; fruits are the ripened ovaries or carpels that contain the seeds. To these two basic definitions can be added the clarification that in botanical terminology, a nut is not a type of fruit and not another term for seed, on the contrary to common terminology.

There are three basic types of fruits:

1. Simple fruit
2. Aggregate fruit
3. Multiple fruit

Simple fruit

Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy and result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent (opening to discharge seeds), or indehiscent (not opening to discharge seeds). Types of dry, simple fruits (with examples) are:

* achene - (buttercup)
* capsule - (Brazil nut)
* caryopsis - (wheat)
* fibrous drupe - (coconut, walnut)
* follicle - (milkweed)
* legume - (pea, bean, peanut)
* loment
* nut - (hazelnut, beech, oak acorn)
* samara - (elm, ash, maple key)
* schizocarp - (carrot)
* silique - (radish)
* silicle - (shepherd's purse)
* utricle - (beet)

Fruits in which part or all of the pericarp (fruit wall) is fleshy at maturity are simple fleshy fruits. Types of fleshy, simple fruits (with examples) are:

* berry - (redcurrant, gooseberry, tomato, avocado)
* stone fruit or drupe (plum, cherry, peach, apricot, olive)
* false berry - Epigynous accessory fruits (banana, cranberry)
* pome - accessory fruits (apple, pear, rosehip)

Aggregate fruit

An aggregate fruit, or etaerio, develops from a flower with numerous simple pistils. An example is the raspberry, whose simple fruits are termed drupelets because each is like a small drupe attached to the receptacle. In some bramble fruits (such as blackberry) the receptacle is elongated and part of the ripe fruit, making the blackberry an aggregate-accessory fruit. The strawberry is also an aggregate-accessory fruit, only one in which the seeds are contained in achenes. In all these examples, the fruit develops from a single flower with numerous pistils.

Some kinds of aggregate fruits are called berries, yet in the botanical sense they are not.

Multiple fruit

A multiple fruit is one formed from a cluster of flowers (called an inflorescence). Each flower produces a fruit, but these mature into a single mass. Examples are the pineapple, edible fig, mulberry, osage-orange, and breadfruit.

In the photograph on the right, stages of flowering and fruit development in the noni or Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia) can be observed on a single branch. First an inflorescence of white flowers called a head is produced. After fertilization, each flower develops into a drupe, and as the drupes expand, they become connate (merge) into a multiple fleshy fruit called a syncarpet.

There are also many dry multiple fruits, e.g.

* Tuliptree, multiple of samaras.
* Sweet gum, multiple of capsules
. * Sycamore and teasel, multiple of achenes.
* Magnolia, multiple of follicles.

Seedless fruits

Seedlessness is an important feature of some fruits of commerce. Commercial cultivars of bananas and pineapples are examples of seedless fruits. Some cultivars of citrus fruits (especially navel oranges and mandarin oranges), table grapes, grapefruit, and watermelons are valued for their seedlessness. In some species, seedlessness is the result of parthenocarpy, where fruits set without fertilization. Parthenocarpic fruit set may or may not require pollination. Most seedless citrus fruits require a pollination stimulus; bananas and pineapples do not. Seedlessness in table grapes results from the abortion of the embryonic plant that is produced by fertilization, a phenomenon known as stenospermocarpy which requires normal pollination and fertilization.  [top]

Seed dissemination

Variations in fruit structures largely depend on the mode of dispersal of the seeds they contain. This dispersal can be achieved by animals, wind, water, or explosive dehiscence.

Some fruits have coats covered with spikes or hooked burrs, either to prevent themselves from being eaten by animals or to stick to the hairs, feathers or legs of animals, using them as dispersal agents. Examples include cocklebur and unicorn plant.

The sweet flesh of many fruits is "deliberately" appealing to animals, so that the seeds held within are eaten and "unwittingly" carried away and deposited at a distance from the parent. Likewise, the nutritious, oily kernels of nuts are appealing to rodents (such as squirrels) who hoard them in the soil in order to avoid starving during the winter, thus giving those seeds that remain uneaten the chance to germinate and grow into a new plant away from their parent.

Other fruits are elongated and flattened out naturally and so become thin, like wings or helicopter blades, e.g. maple, tuliptree and elm. This is an evolutionary mechanism to increase dispersal distance away from the parent via wind. Other wind-dispersed fruit have tiny parachutes, e.g. dandelion and salsify.

Coconut fruits can float thousands of miles in the ocean to spread seeds. Some other fruits that can disperse via water are nipa palm and screw pine.

Some fruits fling seeds substantial distances (up to 100 m in sandbox tree) via explosive dehiscence or other mechanisms, e.g. impatiens and squirting cucumber.  [top]

Uses of Fruit

Many hundreds of fruits, including fleshy fruits like apple, peach, pear, kiwifruit, watermelon and mango are commercially valuable as human food, eaten both fresh and as jams, marmalade and other preserves. Fruits are also in manufactured foods like cookies, muffins, yoghurt, ice cream, cakes, and many more. Many fruits are used to make beverages, such as fruit juices (orange juice, apple juice, grape juice, etc) or alcoholic beverages, such as wine or brandy. Apples are often used to make vinegar.

Many vegetables are botanical fruits, including tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, okra, squash, pumpkin, green bean, cucumber and zucchini. Olive fruit is pressed for olive oil. Spices like vanilla, paprika, allspice and black pepper are derived from berries.  [top]

Nutritional value

Fruits are generally high in fiber, water and vitamin C. Fruits also contain various phytochemicals that do not yet have an RDA/RDI listing under most nutritional factsheets, and which research indicates are required for proper long-term cellular health and disease prevention. Regular consumption of fruit is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging.  [top]

Nonfood uses

Because fruits have been such a major part of the human diet, different cultures have developed many different uses for various fruits that they do not depend on as being edible. Many dry fruits are used as decorations or in dried flower arrangements, such as unicorn plant, lotus, wheat, annual honesty and milkweed. Ornamental trees and shrubs are often cultivated for their colorful fruits, including holly, pyracantha, viburnum, skimmia, beautyberry and cotoneaster.

Fruits of opium poppy are the source of the drugs opium and morphine. Osage orange fruits are used to repel cockroaches. Bayberry fruits provide a wax often used to make candles. Many fruits provide natural dyes, e.g. walnut, sumac, cherry and mulberry. Dried gourds are used as decorations, water jugs, bird houses, musical instruments, cups and dishes. Pumpkins are carved into Jack-o'-lanterns for Halloween. The spiny fruit of burdock or cocklebur were the inspiration for the invention of Velcro.

Coir is a fibre from the fruit of coconut that is used for doormats, brushes, mattresses, floortiles, sacking, insulation and as a growing medium for container plants. The shell of the coconut fruit is used to make souvenir heads, cups, bowls, musical instruments and bird houses.  [top]

Temperate fruits

Fruits of temperate climates are almost always borne on trees or woody shrubs or lianas. They will not grow adequately in the tropics, as they need a period of cold (a chilling requirement) each year before they will flower. The apple, pear, cherry, and plum are the most widely grown and eaten, owing to their adaptability. Many other fruits are important regionally but do not figure prominently in commerce. Many sorts of small fruit on this list are gathered from the wild, just as they were in Neolithic times.

The Family Rosaceae dominates the temperate fruits, both in numbers and in importance. The pome fruits, stone fruits and brambles are fruits of plants in Rosaceae.

The pome fruits:

* Apple and crabapple (Malus)
* Chokeberry (Aronia)
* Hawthorn (Crataegus and Rhaphiolepis)
* Loquat (Eryobotrya japonica)
* Medlar (Mespilus germanica)
* Pear, European and Asian species (Pyrus)
* Quince (Cydonia oblonga and Chaenomeles)
* Rose hip, the fruitlike base of roses (Rosa); used mostly for jams and herbal tea
* Rowan (Sorbus)
* Service tree (Sorbus domestica), bears a fruit known as a sorb or sorb apple
* Serviceberry or Saskatoon (Amelanchier)
* Shipova (× Sorbopyrus auricularis)

The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus:

* Apricot (Prunus armeniaca or Armeniaca vulgaris)
* Cherry, sweet, black, sour, and wild species (Prunus avium, Prunus serotina, P. cerasus, and others)
* Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana)
* Greengage, a cultivar of the plum
* Hybrids of the preceding species, such as the pluot, aprium and peacotum
* Peach (of the normal and white variety) and its variant the nectarine (Prunus persica)
* Plum, of which there are several domestic and wild species; dried plums are called prunes


In non-technical usage, berry means any small fruit that can be eaten whole and lacks objectionable seeds. The bramble fruits, compound fruits of genus Rubus (blackberries), are some of the most popular pseudo-berries:

* Blackberry, of which there are many species and hybrids, such as dewberry, boysenberry, olallieberry, tayberry and loganberry (genus Rubus)
* Cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus)
* Loganberry (Rubus loganobaccus)
* Raspberry, several species (genus Rubus)
* Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis)
* Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus)
* Wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius)

The true berries are dominated by the family Ericaceae, many of which are hardy in the subarctic:

* Bearberry (Arctostaphylos spp.)
* Bilberry or whortleberry (Vaccinium spp.)
* Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.)
* Crowberry (Empetrum spp.)
* Cranberry (Vaccinium spp.)
* Huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.)
* Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)
* Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo), not to be confused with the Strawberry (Fragaria)

Other berries not in the Rosaceae or Ericaceae:

* Açaí (Euterpe), a palm fruit native to the Amazon region
* Barberry (Berberis; Berberidaceae)
* Currant (Ribes spp.; Grossulariaceae), red, black, and white types
* Elderberry (Sambucus; Caprifoliaceae)
* Gooseberry (Ribes spp.; Grossulariaceae)
* Hackberry (Celtis spp.; Cannabaceae)
* Honeysuckle: the berries of some species (called honeyberries) are edible, others are poisonous (Lonicera spp.; Caprifoliaceae)

Fruits of Asian origin

Some fruits native to Asia or of Asian Origin.

* Arhat (Siraitia grosvenorii; Cucurbitaceae) Also called longevity fruit
* Che (Cudrania tricuspidata; Moraceae) Also called Cudrania, Chinese Mulberry, Cudrang, Mandarin Melon Berry, Silkworm Thorn, zhe
* Durian
* Goumi (Elaeagnus multiflora ovata; Elaeagnaceae)
* Hardy Kiwi (Actinidia arguta)
* Kiwifruit or Chinese gooseberry (Actinidia spp.; Actinidiaceae)
* Lapsi (Choerospondias axillaris Roxb.)
* Nungu
* Persimmon (aka Sharon Fruit) (Diospyros kaki; Ebenaceae)
* Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum; Polygonaceae)
* Sageretia (Sageretia theezans; Rhamnaceae) Also called Mock Buckthorn

Fruits of North American origin

(Includes Canada and the United States and all other countries that produce these fruits) Some other fruits native to North America that are eaten in a small way:

* American grape: North American species (e.g., Vitis labrusca; Vitaceae) and American-European hybrids are grown where grape (Vitis vinifera) is not hardy and are used as rootstocks
* American Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum; Berberidaceae)
* American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana; Ebenaceae)
* Beach Plum (Prunus maritima)
* Blueberry (Vaccinium, sect. Cyanococcus; Ericaceae)
* Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argenta; Elaeagnaceae), which grows wild in the prairies of Canada
* Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana)
* Cocoplum (Chrysobalanus icaco; Chrysobalanaceae)
* Cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus)
* False-mastic (Mastichodendron foetidissimum; Sapotaceae)
* Ground Plum (Astragalus caryocarpus; Fabaceae), also called Ground-plum milk-vetch
* Pawpaw (Asimina triloba; Annonaceae, not to be confused with Papaya (Carica papaya; Caricaceae), which is called pawpaw in some English dialects)
* Persimmon ([[Diospyros virginiana]]; Ebenaceae), also called native persimmon, American persimmon, or common persimmon
* Pigeon plum (Coccoloba diversifolia; Polygonaceae)
* Salal berry (Gaultheria shallon; Ericaceae)
* Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis; Rosaceae)
* Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens; Ericaceae)
* Texas persimmon (Diospyros texana; Ebenaceae)
* Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus; Rosaceae)
* Toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia; Rosaceae)

Cacti and other succulents

Several cacti yield edible fruits, which are important traditional foods for some Native American peoples:

* Cardón (Pachycereus pringlei; Cactaceae)
* Dragonfruit (Hylocereus undatus; Cactaceae), also called pitaya
* Prickly pear (Opuntia spp.; Cactaceae)
* Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea; Cactaceae)
* numerous other species of cacti


Podocarps are conifers in the family Podocarpaceae. The seed cones are highly modified and, in some, the seed is surrounded by fleshy scale tissue, resembling a drupe. These berry-like cone scales are eaten by birds which then disperse the seeds in their droppings and the cones can be eaten in many species. Podocarps are either half-hardy or frost tender, depending on species. Many genera are similar in that they have edible "fruits" and often don't have a common name.

* Kahikatea (Dacrycarpus dacrydioides)
* Manoao (Manoao colensoi)
* Nageia (Nageia spp.)
* Podocarpus (Podocarpus spp.)
* Prumnopitys (Prumnopitys spp.)
* Rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum)

Herbaceous annuals fruits

Melons and other members of Cucurbitaceae or Solanaceae family

Some exceptions to the statement that temperate fruits grow on woody perennials are:

* Gourds, including, but not limited to:
o Butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata)
o Cushaw squash (Cucurbita mixta)
o Hubbard squash, Buttercup squash (Cucurbita maxima)
o Pumpkin, Acorn squash, Zucchini, Summer squash (Cucurbita pepovarieties)
* Horned melon (Cucumis metuliferus)
* Melon (Cucumis melo): cantaloupe, galia, and other muskmelons, honeydew

Accessory fruits

The accessory fruits, seed organs which are not botanically berries at all::

* Raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis, Rhamnaceae) Also called Japanese Raisin Tree
* Strawberry (Fragaria spp.; Rosaceae)

Mediterranean and subtropical fruits

Fruits in this category are not hardy to extreme cold, as the preceding temperate fruits are, yet tolerate some frost and may have a modest chilling requirement. Notable among these are natives of the Mediterranean:

* Black mulberry (Morus nigra; Moraceae)
* Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas; Cornaceae)
* Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera; Arecaceae)
* Fig (Ficus spp. Moraceae)
* Grape, called raisin, sultana, or currant when it is dried. (Vitis spp.; Vitaceae)
* Jujube (Ziziphus zizyphus; Rhamnaceae)
* Olive (Olea europea; Oleaceae)
* Pomegranate (Punica granatum; Punicaceae)
* Sycamore fig (Ficus sycomorus. Moraceae) also called old world sycomore or just sycomore.

In the important genus Citrus (Rutaceae), some members are tropical, tolerating no frost. All common species of commerce are somewhat hardy:

* Citron (Citrus medica)
* Clementine (Citrus reticulata var. Clementine),
* Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi)
* Hybrids of the preceding species, such as the Orangelo, Tangelo, Rangpur (fruit) and Ugli fruit
* Kumquat (Fortunella)
* Lemon (Citrus limon)
* Limes
o Key Lime (Citrus aurantifolia)
o Persian lime Also known as tahiti lime.
o Kaffir lime (Citrus hystix)
* Mandarin (Citrus reticulata),
* Orange, of which there are sweet (Citrus sinensis) and sour (Citrus aurantium) species
* Pomelo (also known as the shaddock) (Citrus maxima)
* Sweet Lemon (Citrus limetta)
* Tangerine, and similar

Other subtropical fruits:

* Avocado (Persea americana; Lauraceae)
* Carob (Ceratonia siliqua; Fabaceae)
* Feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana; Myrtaceae)
* Guava (Psidium guajava; Myrtaceae)
* Kumquat (Fortunella spp.; Rutaceae)
* Longan (Euphoria longan; Sapindaceae)
* Lúcuma (Pouteria lucuma; Sapotaceae)
* Lychee (Litchi chinensis; Sapindaceae)
* Passion fruit or Grenadilla (Passiflora edulis and other Passiflora spp.; Passifloraceae) Galendar in some part of east India (Darjeeling)
* Peanut (Arachis hypogaea; Fabaceae)
* Pond-apple (Annona glabra; Annonaceae) Also called Alligator-apple and Monkey-apple
* Strawberry guava (Psidium litorale; Myrtaceae)
* Tamarillo or Tree Tomato (Cyphomandra betacea; Solanaceae)
* Ugni (Ugni molinae; Myrtaceae)
* Yangmei (Myrica rubra; Myricaceae) Also called Yumberry, Yamamomo, Chinese Bayberry, Japanese Bayberry, Red Bayberry, or Chinese strawberry tree

Tropical fruits

Tropical fruit grow on plants of all habitats. The only characteristic that they share is an intolerance of frost.

* Acerola (Malpighia glabra; Malpighiaceae), also called West Indian Cherry or Barbados Cherry
* Ackee (Blighia sapida or Cupania sapida; Sapindaceae)
* African cherry orange (Citropsis schweinfurthii; Rutaceae)
* Amazon Grape (Pourouma cecropiaefolia;Moraceae)
* Araza
* Avocado
* Açaí (Euterpe oleracea; Arecaceae), or assai
* Babaco (Carica pentagona; Caricaceae)
* Bael (Aegle marmelos; Rutaceae)
* Banana (Musacea spp.; Musaceae); its starchy variant is the plantain
* Barbadine (granadilla; maracujá-açu in Portuguese)
* Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L.; Malpighiaceae), also called Acerola, West Indian Cherry
* Betel Nut
* Bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi; Oxalidaceae) Also called cucumber tree or tree sorrel
* Biriba
* Bitter gourd
* Black sapote
* Bottle gourd
* Brazil nut
* Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis; Moraceae)
* Burmese grape (Baccaurea sapida; Cucurbitaceae)
* Calabash (Lagenaria siceraria; Bignoniaceae)
* Calabashtree
* CamuCamu (Myrciaria dubia; Myrtaceae)
* Canistel
* Cape gooseberry
* Carambola (Averrhoa carambola; Oxalidaceae), also called star fruit or five fingers
* Cashew
* Cempedak or Champedak (Artocarpus champeden; Moraceae)
* Ceylon gooseberry
* Chenet (guinep or ackee; pitomba-das-Guinas in Portuguese)
* Cherimoya (Annona cherimola; Annonaceae)
* Chili pepper
* Caimito (caimite; related to the yellow abiu - egg fruit)
* Cacao
* Coconut (Cocos spp.; Arecaceae)
* Coffee
* Cupuaçu
* Custard apple (Annona reticulata; Annonaceae), also called Bullock's Heart
* Damson plum (Chrysophyllum oliviforme; Sapotaceae), also called Satin Leaf
* Date
* Date-plum (Diospyros lotus; Ebenaceae)
* Dragonfruit (Hylocereus spp.; Cactaceae), also called pitaya
* Durian (Durio spp.; Bombacaceae)
* Eggfruit (Pouteria campechiana; Sapotaceae), also called canistel or yellow sapote
* Elephant apple (Dillenia indica; Dilleniaceae)
* Giant granadilla
* Golden Apple
* Guarana (Paullinia cupana; Sapindaceae)
* Guava
* Guavaberry or Rumberry; (Myrciaria floribunda; Myrtaceae)
* Hog plum (taperebá in Portuguese)
* Horned melon (Cucumis metuliferus; Cucurbitaceae)
* Huito (Genipa americana; Rubiaceae); also called jagua, genipap, jenipapo
* Indian almond
* Indian fig
* Indian jujube
* Indian Prune (Flacourtia rukan; Flacourtiaceae)
* Jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora; Myrtaceae), also called Brazilian Grape Tree
* Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae), also called nangka
* Jambul (Syzygium cumini; Myrtaceae)
* Jatobá (Hymenae coubaril; Leguminosae) Caesalpinioideae)
* Jocote, also called Jamaica Plum
* Kandis (Garcinia forbesii; Clusiaceae)
* Keppel fruit (Stelechocarpus burakol; Annonaceae)
* Kumquat
* Kundong (Garcinia sp.; Clusiaceae)
* Lablab
* Langsat (Lansium domesticum), also called longkong or duku
* Lansones (Lansium domesticum spp.; Meliaceae)
* Lemon
* Leucaena
* Lime
* Longan
* Loquat
* Lucuma
* Lychee
* Mabolo (Diospyros discolor; Ebenaceae) also known as a velvet persimmon
* Macadamia
* Mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota; Sapotaceae); also known as mamee apple; abricó in Portuguese
* Mamoncillo (Melicoccus bijugatus; Sapindaceae), also known as quenepa, genip or Fijian Longan
* Mandarin
* Manila tamarind (or Monkeypod, Pithecellobium dulce)
* Mango (Mangifera indica; Anacardiaceae)
* Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana; Clusiaceae)
* Marang (Artocarpus odoratissima; Moraceae), a breadfruit relative
* Melinjo
* Melon pear
* Monstera (Monstera deliciosa; Araceae) also called Swiss Cheese Plant, Split-leaf Philodendron
* Morinda
* Mountain soursop
* Mundu
* Mung bean
* Muskmelon
* Nance
* Naranjilla, Lulo (Solanum quitoense; Solanaceae)
* Nutmeg
* Neem
* Oil Palm
* Okra
* Papaya (Carica papaya; Caricaceae)
* Peach palm
* Peanut butter fruit (Bunchosia argentea; Malpighiaceae)
* Pequi or Souari Nut (Caryocar brasiliense; Caryocaraceae)
* Pewa (peach palm; pupunha in Portuguese)
* Pigeon pea
* Pili nut
* Pineapple (Ananas comosus or Ananas sativas; Bromeliaceae)
* Pitomba (Eugenia luschnathiana or Talisia esculenta)
* Plantain
* Poha or Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana; Solanaceae)
* Pois doux (Inga edulis, ice-cream bean, or inga-cipó in Portuguese)
* Poisonleaf (Dichapetalum cymosum) (?)
* Pommecythère or pomcité (Spondias cytherea); also known as golden apple, June plum or Jew plum and ambarella, and as cajamanga in Portuguese
* Pommerac (Eugenia malaccensis); also known as Otaheite apple; Malay apple; jambo in Portuguese
* Pulasan
* Pummelo
* Pupunha or peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes; Palmae); also known as pewa
* Queensland nut
* Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum; Sapindaceae)
* Red Mombin (Spondias purpurea; Anacardiaceae)
* Riberry (Syzygium luehmannii; Myrtaceae), also called Lilly Pilly, Lillipilli, Chinese Apple
* Ridged gourd
* Salak (Salacca edulis), also called snakefruit
* Santol (Sandoricum koetjape; Meliaceae)
* Sapodilla (Achras/Manilkara zapota; Sapotaceae), also called chiku, mespel, naseberry, sapadilla, snake fruit, sawo
* Sea grape
* Soncoya (Annona diversifolia)
* Soursop (Annona muricata; Annonaceae), also called guanabana
* Soybean
* Star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito), also called caimito or caimite
* Strawberry guava
* Strawberry pear
* Sugar apple (Annona squamosa; Annonaceae); ata in Portuguese
* Summer squash
* Surinam Cherry (Eugenia uniflora; Myrtaceae) also called Brazilian Cherry, Cayenne Cherry, Pitanga
* Sweet granadilla
* Sweet orange
* Sweet pepper
* Sweetsop
* Rose apple (Syzygium jambos; Myrtaceae), also called Malay apple
* Tamarind (Tamarindus indica; Caesalpiniaceae)
* Vanilla
* Water apple
* Watermelon
* Wax apple (Syzygium samarangense)
* Wax gourd
* White sapote
* Winged bean